## Maxima Tutorial 1: Numerical Computation

** Maxima **is free a computer algebra system capable of a variety of computations. It can manipulate symbolic and numerical expressions, as well as perform differentiation and integration. It can also manipulate Taylor series, Laplace transforms, ordinary differential equations, systems of linear equations, polynomials, and sets, lists, vectors, matrices, and tensors. Maxima can perform high-precision computations as well as plot two and three-dimensional graphs. In this tutorial, we are going to learn how to use Maxima to perform basic numerical computations.

To perform simple numeric computations, we need to open the *Command line Maxima* as shown in Figure 1. The Command line Maxima is similar to the DOS-prompt as shown below. We just have to type the expression, the press the ENTER key.

- To add 12 and 15, type the following
**12 + 15;**and press the ENTER key on your keyboard. Note that each computation, command or expression ends in a semi-colon. The**(%i1)**text means first user input and the**(%o1)**means first output**.**After pressing the ENTER key, your first output should be**27.** - Maxima is capable of computing a wide variety of operations. It can compute very large or small numbers as well as perform many functions. Type the following and press ENTER after each expression:
**18 – (-5);****-15*34;****18/2;****12^39****;****sqrt(3);**

After typing **sqrt(3)** and pressing the ENTER key, your screen would look like the one shown below. Notice that what when we typed** sqrt(3), **the output is also

**That is because, Maxima also accepts expressions like fractions and radicals without simplifying them. To simplify an expression into a decimal number, we need the**

*sqrt(3).***float**command. The float command converts fractions, radical expressions and other expressions to decimal numbers.

Therefore, we need to “float” sqrt(3); to do this type **float(sqrt(3))**; and press the ENTER key. Then type the following:

**float(log(5))****;****float(15^20)****;****%o6 + %o7****;**

Note that the output of float(15^20) is in different form that that of 12^39. The output in of in (%o8) means

**3.3252567300596506 x 10 ^{23}**

We can also perform operations of previous inputs and outputs by typing their corresponding prompts. The command **%o6 + %o7; **added the value in output 6 and output 7.

**Mathematical Constants**

Maxima has also mathematical constants stored in the program. So computations like pi*r*2 is possible.

%e

%pi

%phi

%i

inf and minf for

In Maxima Tutorial 2, we will discuss how to use Maxima to help us perform symbolic manipulations.