Problem: How many groups can be formed from 5 persons?

First, we represent the persons by small letters *a*, *b*, *c*, *d*, and *e, *and we denote a group whose members are *c* and *d* as {*c*, *d*}. We can have a group with 2 members, 3 members, 4 members, and 5 members. The members in each group are listed below.

10 groups with two members in each group:

{*a*, *b*}, {*a*, *c*}, {*a*, *d*}, {*a*, *e*}, {*b*, *c*}, {*b*, *d*}, {*b*,*e*}, {*c*, *d*}, {*c*,*e*}, {*d*,*e*}.

10 groups with three members in each group:

{*a, b, c*}*, *{*a, b, d*}*, *{*a, b, e*}*, *{*a, c, d*}*, *{*a, c, e*}*, *{*b, c, d*}*, *{*b, c, e*}*, *{*b, d, e*}*, *{*c, d, e*}

5 groups with four members in each group:

{*a, b, c, d*}*, {a, b, c, e}, {a, b, d, e},{a, c, d, e}, {b, c, d, e}*

1 group with five members:

{*a, b, c, d, e*}

Therefore, 26 groups of at least two members, can be formed from 5 persons.

In set theory, we also talk about the number of groups in a group, or, technically, the number of subsets in a set. However, in this problem, the sets with 1 element and the set with no element (the empty set) are also counted. Therefore, aside from the sets listed above, we also include the following:

5 groups with one element: {*a*}, {*b*}, {*c*}, {*d*}, {*e*}

1 group with no element: {}

In effect, the number of sets in a set with 5 elements is 32.

Notice that in counting the number of subsets with 4 elements, we compute the number of combinations of 5 elements taken 4 at a time. So, in counting all the subsets, we find the the sum of 5 taken 0 at time, 5 taken 1 at a time, all the way up to 5 taken 5 at a time. The equivalent of that sum in symbol is

which is the sixth row of the Pascal’s Triangle shown below.

Obviously, in finding the number of subsets in a set with *n* elements, we have to add the number of subsets with 0, 1, 2, 3 all the way up to *n-1* elements or

.

Looking at Pascal’s triangles, adding the numbers in each row gives us a sum of powers of 2. The number of subsets in a set with 2 elements is , the number of subsets in a set with 3 elements is , the number of subsets in a set with 4 elements is , and so on.

Generalizing the pattern above, the number of subsets in a set with elements is .

In the “group problem,” we did not count the groups with 1 member (5 groups), and the groups with no member (the empty set). So, the number of groups that can be formed with 5 persons is . In general, the number of groups with at least 2 members that can be formed from people is .