This is a series of posts that explains modular systems starting from an intuitive introduction using clocks. I wrote this for high school students of average mathematical ability.

I hope you find the series easy to read and student friendly.

The Series

Part 1: Introduction to Clock Arithmetic and Modular Systems

This post introduces modular arithmetic intuitively using the 12-hour clock mathematical operations. What happens if we add the numbers on the clock?

Par t 2: Clock Arithmetic and Modular Systems (continued)

This post analyzes the addition table formed using the 12-hour clock number system. It also introduces the congruence symbol.

Part 3: Introduction to Number Bases

This post introduces other number systems such as the hexadecimal system and the binary system. It also explains the meaning of place value in different number systems.

Part 4: The Definition of Congruence in the Modular Systems

This part introduces congruence in a more formal approach. It is the formal definition of congruence. It also discusses some properties of congruence.