The Clock Arithmetic and Modular Systems Series

This is a series of posts that explains modular systems starting from an intuitive introduction using clocks. I wrote this for high school students of average mathematical ability.

clock arithmetic

I hope you find the series easy to read and student friendly.

The Series

Part 1: Introduction to Clock Arithmetic and Modular Systems

This post introduces modular arithmetic intuitively using the 12-hour clock mathematical operations. What happens if we add the numbers on the clock? » Read more

Introduction to Clock Arithmetic and Modular Systems

Most of us are familiar with 12-hour analog clocks. They are numbered 1 through 12; they have hour, minute, and second hands. In this post, we are going to experiment clock arithmetic — we are going to perform addition using the numbers on the clock.

clock arithmetic

Let us think about the following questions.

  • What if we add 3 hours after 8:00?
  • What if we add 2 hours after 3:00?
  • What if we add 4 hours after 11:00? » Read more
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